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Representative Client List

AMOCO – ARAMCO – British Gas – Camisea Pipelines (Peru)
Caspian Sea Consortium – Consolidated Natural Gas – CONOCO Pipeline
Coastal Crude Gathering Systems – Dow Chemical – Enbridge
Key West Pipeline – Kinder Morgan – Mobil Oil – Marathon Oil
– MarkWest – NOVA Gas Pipeline – Solar Turbines – Sunoco
Shell Oil – Targa Grand Prix Pipeline TransCanada – Williams Pipeline – Virginia Natural Gas

Representative Project List

PETROCHINA West-East Natural Gas Pipeline

LPS designed a 4,000 km., 40″ Pipeline to transport 1,270 MMSCF/D of gas from the gas fields west of Jingbian to Shanghai.  Different compression ratios were considered to determine how they affected the economics of the pipeline.  The pipeline crosses desert terrain making gas discharge temperatures a dominant design factor.  Compressor station after-coolers were considered as well as high temperature pipeline coating materials. Internal pipe coating was evaluated to minimize friction losses.

Three different compressor vendors were evaluated to consider the effects that large, medium and small horsepower units had on the number of units required, sparing and unit outage scenarios.  Small horsepower units were rejected because they required too many total units, too much piping and also more stations.

Software was developed to automate the locations of the stations as functions of elevation, compressor station ratio, horsepower available and flowrate.  The final design had 12 compressor stations with a single compressor at each station.  The initial station had two units and gas after-coolers.

A transient analysis was also performed to determine if the cyclical and peak deliveries could be met without depleting linepack.  Additional transient analyses were performed to determine the effects of a station outage.

BRITISH GAS’S WESTERN CANADIAN GAS PIPELINE

Linden Professional Services (LPS) was contracted by BP to perform a steady state hydraulic analysis of BG Group’s Western Canadian Gas Pipeline. This Gas Pipeline will transport natural gas from a gas plant south of Fort Nelson, British Colombia to a terminal on Ridley Island, British Colombia. In a plant on Ridley Island, the natural gas will be converted to LNG. The purpose of this study is to determine the range of pipeline configurations required to transport up to 4500 MMSCFD of gas.

The steady state analysis portion of this study was performed using GL Noble Denton’s Stoner Pipeline Simulator gas model using the CNGA equation of state. First compressor station locations were determined. Then compressor head curve determinations were made using known pipeline flowrates and compressor station discharge pressures.

The deliverables of the study are: 1) The pipeline hydraulics determining the compression requirements to flow at all desired flowrates. 2) The Horsepower required at all Compressor Stations. A report documenting the findings, design basis, method of analysis, assumptions and conclusions.

TARGA LNG PIPELINE

We were contracted by Targa to perform hydraulic and Surge Analysis of the new “To Be Constructed” Grand Prix Pipeline. This pipeline was designed to transport liquid natural gas. We determined the flow capacity of the pipeline for several pumping configurations. From those results, Targa developed and flow expansion plan.

Using those pumping configurations, we performed rigorous Surge Analysis Studies. A scenario was developed for the closure of each Main Line Valve at several flowrates. For the scenarios which could violate the MOP of the pipeline we recommended pipeline controls to insure the integrity of the pipeline would not be violated.

For the inlet and outlet terminals, we worked with the SCADA vendor to specify valve closing times and shutdown setpoints to avoid MAOP violations.

KINDER MORGAN UTOPIA PIPELINE

We were contracted by Kinder Morgan to perform hydraulic and Surge Analysis of the new “To Be Constructed” Utopia Pipeline. This pipeline was designed to transport liquid Ethane. We determined the flow capacity of the pipeline for several pumping configurations and with only the suppliers providing the pumping. From those results, Kinder Morgan developed a flow expansion plan.

Using those pumping configurations, we performed rigorous Surge Analysis Studies. A scenario was developed for the closure of each Main Line Valve at several flowrates. For the scenarios which could violate the MOP of the pipeline we recommended pipeline controls to insure the integrity of the pipeline would not be violated.

For the inlet and outlet terminals, we worked with the SCADA vendor to specify valve closing times and shutdown setpoints to avoid MAOP violations.

Prior to startup, we performed pipeline purging and line fill calculations.

CONOCO Pipeline

The objective was to bring a SCADA system on-line and configure SCADA applications.  These applications were a pressure/temperature compensated line balance system, a valve lineup system and automatic control sequence system, a batch tracking system, a hydraulic gradient profile graphics system and a transient model based leak detection system.  LPS worked with both the SCADA and leak detection vendors to identify problems, recommend solutions and to test improvements to the software systems.

ARAMCO Northern Area Pipeline System Saudi Arabia

This was a network of five pipelines ranging from 20″ to 48″.  The object was to significantly increase flow capacity by adding pumping equipment and additional supply sites.  Various options were analyzed with major emphasis on minimizing disruption of existing production, and maintaining safe operation of the system.  The result was to define an optimum pipeline network and to selectively increase pumping capacity.  After finalizing the optimum network configuration and pumping equipment, a surge study was completed to specify surge relief equipment that will protect that system from inadvertent operations.

Kinder Morgan Pipeline Trainers

Several simulation based Pipeline Trainers were developed to train pipeline operators. The models of the pipeline were developed to match the hydraulics of the operating pipeline. The models included as many as 30 pumping stations and simulated batched operation. SCADA functionality implemented included symbol color changes, pump start and valve control dialog boxes, High Pressure Shutdown Capability and High Pressure Alarm generation, functionality to specify setpoints, and the updating of all pressure, flow and temperature variables on the simulated SCADA screens. Navigation between the Pipeline Trainer screens was to resemble that of the actual SCADA system. Logic to Lock Out a pump after a High Pressure trip or an ESD shutdown was implemented. In some cases, SCADA screens were developed in VB or a Screen Builder. In other cases, an interface to the SCADA database was implemented.

Kinder Morgan Products Terminal

Numerous Surge Analysis scenarios were analyzed for this large crude oil and refined products terminal. This terminal has over 100 tanks, accepts products from refineries, barges, ships and pipelines. In like fashion, it pumps refined products to barges, ships and pipelines. Routes considered were tank to tank, ship to tank, barge to tank, tank to pipeline and pipeline to tank. Each route considered surge events such as the loss of pumping power and the closure of valves. As this is an ANSI 150 terminal, surge pressures often exceeded MASP. In cases where the MASP was violated, Surge Relief Equipment was specified.

Aramco’s Rabigh to Jeddah Products Pipeline

Analyzed flow performance of a planned products pipeline to transport two grades of gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and a heavy fuel oil.  The study analyzed interface sizes, specified transmix tankage requirements and defined pumping and transmission line sizes.  Minimum batch sizes were determined so that transmix volumes could be blended into planned batches without violating contamination levels.

Consolidated Natural Gas

This purpose of this study was to automate the pipeline operation.  LPS determined station suction and discharge setpoints and developed a pipeline control strategy and developed an interactive interface that defined available equipment and nominated pipeline flows and determined optimum pipeline setpoints and required equipment.  A SCADA interface was defined to insure that all required control and simulation data was available to the optimization algorithm and to the higher-level software control system.

TEXACO Pipeline

This was a batched products pipeline transporting various liquids to a tank farm for distribution to trucks.  The object was to analyze possible surge events and recommend the installation of surge equipment.

Trident, NGL

The objective was to improve performance of a gas gathering system of over 500 wells and 6 compression stations.  Some of the pipeline segments were in two-phase flow.  LPS recommended liquid removal equipment, interconnecting piping and a different operating strategy for the compression equipment.

Virginia Natural Gas

LPS analyzed the demand forecast for a distribution system to determine if the existing line size could support future deliveries.  We recommended additional compression and line looping to meet future demands.  The critical issue was the precise location and specification of the compressor station.

ECOPETROL

LPS analyzed the flow performance of an existing ship loading facility in Colombia.  The system consisted of an onshore terminal and pump station, its subsea pipeline system and the ship-loading units.  The primary objective was to control surge pressures of the subsea pipelines and at the ship loading facilities below maximum allowable surge pressure (MASP) while minimizing surge relief tank sizes.

Oleoducto Crudo Pesado (OCP)

The OCP Project is proposing to construct a new heavy oil 488 km pipeline to an existing terminal on the Pacific coast of Ecuador.  Crudes ranging from 16 to 24 degrees API will be transported without batching.   It was determined that the crudes to be transported should be heated at each pump station to allow the use of centrifugal pumps and to reduce frictional pressure losses along the pipeline.  Sensitivity of crude temperature to pipeline capacity was analyzed to determine optimal heating temperatures to minimize operating costs.

Markwest Hydrocarbons

The client planned to expand a pipeline system to tie in other gas plants and to minimize trucking of NGL products.  LPS performed a series of hydraulic analysis cases to insure that the new operating pressures required by the new and higher flows would not exceed the MAOP ratings. It was determined that in some operating scenarios, a portion of the pipeline system could be over pressured. Isolation valves and surge relief equipment were specified.  Pumping requirements were specified.

Currently, we are implementing a “Mass Balance” Leak Detection System on the updated pipeline configuration

KeyWest Pipeline

Keywest Pipeline desired to automate their Jet Fuel Pipeline monitor inlet flow, outlet flow, pump and valve status. The purpose of the automations was to determine if the pipeline was developing a leak. Another requirement was to monitor pipeline valve status so that if a valve was closing whine the pumps were operating, the pumps would be tripped off.

LPS was contracted to develop and commission a Wi-Fi based system to monitor the pipeline instrumentation and equipment status. We integrated our existing Mass Balance Leak Detection System (MBLDS) into the data acquisition system to analyze system flows and declare potential leaks.

As the wireless networks have evolved, we are currently upgrading the system from 3G to 4G.

Linden Professional Services

Linden Professional Services